The history of Nepal has been influenced by its position in the Himalayas and its two neighbours, modern day India and China. Due to the arrival of disparate settler groups from outside through the ages, it is now a multiethnic, multiracial , multicultural, multi religious, and multilingual country. Central Nepal was split in three kingdoms from the 15th century until the 18th century, when it was re-unified under the Shah monarchy. The national and most spoken language of Nepal is Nepali.

Nepal experienced a struggle for democracy in the 20th century. During the 1990s and until 2008, the country was in civil strife. A peace treaty was signed in 2008 and elections were held in the same year. In a historical vote for the election of the constituent assembly, Nepalese parliament voted to oust the monarchy in June 2008. Nepal became a federal republic and was formally renamed the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal.